L. Rhodes

Two Timelines of the Ancient Kingdoms of Judah and Israel

The two charts below are based primarily on material found in A History of Ancient Israel and Judah (2nd edition), by J. Maxwell Miller and John H. Hayes. They were created in order to strengthen my grasp on the chronology of the period, and are presented here only as an aid to anyone interested in browsing a spatial representation of the subject matter. They should under no circumstances be construed as original research.

Judah and Israel in the Context of Middle East History

This chart presents the span of Judean and Israelite history in the context of the broader sweep of Middle Eastern history, from the prehistoric period to the beginning of the Common Era. The dynastic history of Egypt provides the longest unbroken historical record in the region, and while it does bear directly at points on the history of Judah and Israel, it is included here mostly for scale. Next to it is the periodization of history used by archaeologists, which should give a more diagnostic sense of the material conditions that gave rise to the Two Kingdoms. Also represented are a number of the Middle Eastern empires with the largest influence on Judean and Israelite affairs, as well as their historical forebears.

Chart A: Judah and Israel in the Context of Middle East History
Egypt Periodization     The Two Kingdoms Middle Eastern Empires
  Prehistoric Times            
  Early Bronze Age 3200 —          
Early Dynastic Period     — 3100        
Dynasties I–II   3000 —          
      — 2900        
    2800 —          
Old Kingdom     — 2700        
Dynasties III–IV   2600 —          
      — 2500        
    2400 —          
      — 2300     Akkadian Empire  
First Intermediate Period   2200 —       (ca. 2334–2154 BCE)  
Dynasties VII(?)–X     — 2100        
Middle Period Middle Bronze Age 2000 —       Old Assyrian Empire  
Dynasties XI-XIII     — 1900     (2025–1378 BCE) Old Babylonian Empire
    1800 —         (1894–1595 BCE)
Second Intermediate Period     — 1700        
Dynasties XIV–XVII   1600 —         Kassite Dynasty
New Kingdom Late Bronze Age   — 1500       (1595–1155 BCE)
Dynasties XVIII–XX LB IIa 1400 —       Middle Assyrian Empire  
  LB IIb   — 1300     (1391–934 BCE)  
  Iron Age 1200 —          
      — 1100        
Third Intermediate Period   1000 —   Saul–David–Solomon ca. 1000–927 BCE)    
Dynasties XXI–XXV     — 900 Judah Israel Neo-Assyrian Empire  
    800 —   (926–568 BCE) (926–722 BCE) (911–609 BCE)  
      — 700        
Late Period   600 —         Neo-Babylonian Empire(626–539 BCE)
Dynasties XXVI–XXXI     — 500       Achaemenid Empire
    400 —         (550–330 BCE);
Greco-Roman Period Hellenistic Period   — 300     Alexander the Great  
Argead & Ptolemaic Dynasties   200 —          
  Roman Period   — 100        
    0 —          
  The Common Era            

The Political History of Judah and Israel

This chart provides a closer view of the events that can be dated from Judean and Israelite history, based on contemporaneous records and calculations from relatively certain milestones. Dates in parentheses are those to which Miller and Hayes accorded a relative degree of confidence. Dates in brackets represent potential alternative dates. Entries with no dates indicate chronological uncertainty, and have been given approximate placement.

Chart B: The Political History of Judah and Israel
        
United Monarchy
  Saul   1000—        
  Ish-bosheth     —990      
  David   980—        
  Solomon     —970      
  construction of the Temple   960—        
        —950      
Pharaoh Sheshonq I (943–922)     940—        
  Judah Israel  
    Rehoboam (926–910)—   —930 Rehoboam rejected by Shechem Assembly Jeroboam (927–906)  
    Egypt invades Palestine (922–911)— 920—   cult re-centered on Bethel and Dan    
  Asa (906–878 [866])— Abijam/Abijah (909–907)—   —910 Nadab (905–904)    
      900—   Baasha (903–882 [880])    
        —890 struggle over fortifications at Ramah   Ben-hadad I of Damascas invades N. Israel
Ashurnasirpal II of Assyria (883–859)—     880—   Elah (881–880) Zimri (seven days) Zimri assassinates Elah, burns in palace
Omride Era (879–840 BCE)
Neo-Assyrian Period   Jehoshaphat (877–853)— 880—   Omri (879–869) civil war with Tibni (879–875) —new capital at Samaria (875–874)
        —870 Ahab (868–854)   Omri annexes northern Moab
Shalmaneser III of Assyria (858–?)     860—        
Battle of Qarqar (853)   Jehoram (852–841) —   —850 Ahaziah (853–851) Jehoram (851–840)  
campaigns in Palestine (849–845)   Ahaziah (840)— 840—   Jehoram wounded at Ramoth-gilead Jehu's coup  
Jehu Dynasty (839–748 BCE)
final Syro-Palestinan campaign (838–837)   Athaliah (839–833)— 840—   Jehu (839–822)   Damascus dominant in Syria-Palestine
  Jehoida's coup, d. Athaliah Jehoash/Joash (832–803 [793])—   —830     Assyrian rebellions (827–821)
      820—   Jehoahaz (821–805)    
        —810      
  Jehoash wounded in coup attempt (803/802) Amaziah (802–786 [774])— 800—   Joash (804–789)    
  Jerusalem captured, Amaziah hostage (789/788) d. Jehoash (793/792)—   —790 Jeroboam II (788-748) battle of Beth-shemesh against Judah  
Shalmaneser IV of Assyria (782–773) Amaziah acclaimed king (785) Azariah (Uzziah) (785–760 [734])— 780—        
occupied with Urartu and Damascus       —770      
revolts in Assyria   Jotham (759–744)— 760—   Hosea, Amos active    
Ashur-nirari V of Assyria (754–745)       —750 Zechariah, Shallum (748/747) Menahem (746–737) Rezin of Damascus (?–731)
Assyrian rule (745–627 BCE)
Tiglath-pileser III of Assyria (744–727) Isaiah active Ahaz I/Jehoahaz (743–728)— 740—   Pekahiah (736–735) executed by Pekah Israel joins Rezin's anti-Assyrian coalition
Shalmaneser V of Assyria (726–722) Syro-Ephraimite War (734–731) Hezekiah (727–699)—   —730 Hoshea (730–722) Pekah (734–731) anti-Assyrian coalition broken (734–731)
Sargon II of Assyria (721–705) Judah enjoys Assyrian favor Judah invades Philistia 720—   — Shalmaneser captures Samaria (722) Assyria incorporates Israel (720–719) Assyria incorporates Syria
  Judah revolts against Assyria     —710   deportations and resettlement  
Sennacherib of Assyria (704–681) revolt suppressed (701) Manasseh (698–644)— 700—        
    vassaldom to Assyria   —690     Sennacherib destroys Babylon (689)
Esarhaddon of Assyria (680–669)     680—       Esarhaddon rebuilds Babylon
Ashurbanipal of Assyria (668–627) Assyrian campaigns in Egypt (673–671)     —670      
XXVIth Dynasty in Egypt (664)     660—       Assyrian–Egyptian alliance
  expansion of Egyptian influence     —650     further destruction of Babylon (648)
Ashurbanipal abdicates? (630) Amon (643–642)— Josiah (642–610)— 640—        
Ashur-etil-ilani of Assyria (630-623) Egyptian capture of Ashdod (635?) subordinate to Egypt   —630 civil war, revolt of Babylon (627–623) Nabopolassar of Babylon (626–605) Neo-Babylonian Empire
Sin-shar-ishkun of Assyria (623–612) Egypt controls Via Maris Jeremiah active 620—     Assyria and Babylon struggle for dominance  
Ashur-uballit II of Assyria (611–609) Jehoahaz II (three months)— Jehoiakim (608–598)—   —610   Babylonians capture Ninevah d. Nabopolassar at Carchemish
Babylonian rule (605–586 BCE)
Assyrians defeated at Carchemish (605) Jehoiachin (three months)— Zedekiah (596–586)— 600—   Nebuchadrezzar II of Babylon (605–562) Jehoiakim rebels against Bablyon surrender of Jerusalem (597)
Ezekiel active Judah rebels against Babylon Fall of Jerusalem (586) —   —590   Judah reorganized as Yehud province Gedaliah appointed over Judah
    Babylonian captivity 580—   Ishmael assassinates Gediliah at Mizpah    
        —570      
Cyrus II of Persia (559–530) Persian Empire   560—   Amel-marduk of Babylon (561-560) Neriglissar of Babylon (559-556) Labashi-marduk of Babylon (556-555)
        —550 rebellion led by Babylonian officers Nabonidus of Babylon (555–539)  
  Cyrus captures Bablyon (539)— first Jews return from Babylon (538?)— 540—        

Notes

Creating these charts also allowed me to experiment with using HTML and CSS to represent chronology. If the position of the items on each chart seems especially approximate, or if the charts are clearly displaying improperly, check your settings to make sure that your browser isn't overriding this page's stylesheet. If they're still displaying incorrectly, it's possible that there's a compatibility issue, in which case, you can contact me on Twitter @upstreamism or on Mastodon @lrhodes@merveilles.town.

If one or more of the dates or factual claims on here looks incorrect, there are a few possible explanations. One is that the conclusions reached by Miller and Hayes may differ from those of your education or research. While I would likely be interested to learn about those differences, I'm not really qualified to adjudicate between them, and likely won't change the content of this page unless confronted with evidence or an argument that I find compelling. Another possibility is that I've either misread something in Miller and Hayes, or mistyped the entry in the data tables. I will, of course, correct any typos that are pointed out to me.